RIPPLE is a powerful, analytical tool to help inform anadromous salmonid population restoration and recovery planning. RIPPLE uses an ecological-process-based approach to model the effects of historical, current, and potential future watershed conditions as they affect salmonid populations.
How does it work?
Our basic conceptual model for stream and salmonid restoration is to reinitiate geomorphic and ecological processes that create and maintain habitats required by each salmonid species at various life history stages. RIPPLE attempts to quantitatively apply this conceptual model across multiple spatial scales. Geomorphic characteristics, such as channel gradient and drainage area, and physical habitat characteristics are combined with density and suitability criteria by species and life stage, to predict reach-specific historical, current, and potential future salmon habitat. RIPPLE then employs a multi-stage, stock-production model to predict long-term average abundance for each life stage, which can be displayed on a map, and a time-series of total abundance for each life stage, which can be viewed as a series of graphs (see photo gallery). RIPPLE can also produce a single number, such as "long-term average escapement" for the purposes of assessment or comparison. View a case study of applying RIPPLE to the Rock Creek basin in Oregon.
Why use RIPPLE?
RIPPLE integrates geomorphological information with aquatic habitat and biological data, and the anthropogenic factors affecting them, for an overall understanding of how these attributes affect salmon populations. Using the output of RIPPLE, we can more effectively develop successful restoration strategies and measures, assess current conditions quantitatively to help prioritize management actions, and evaluate restoration and conservation options under various scenarios.
RIPPLE was developed by Stillwater Sciences together with scientists at the University of California, Berkeley. While the focus species for its development was anadromous salmonids, RIPPLE is applicable to other aquatic species, as we have explored on a limited basis with such species as Pacific lamprey and California freshwater shrimp. The model is freely available and can be downloaded from the website of the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics at http://software.nced.umn.edu/ripple/download/index.html.
RIPPLE integrates habitat and biological information for an overall understanding of salmon populations.View the gallery
In the North Umpqua River we applied RIPPLE to develop salmonid production estimates and assess the potential benefits of providing fish passage at Soda Springs Dam to access historically available habitat, and to assess the potential benefits of alternative enhancement opportunities downstream of the dam. Benefits were reported in terms of increase in life-stage-specific production over current conditions, allowing relevant comparison of management alternatives and informed decision making.
We predicted the distribution of Chinook salmon spawning and rearing habitat using RIPPLE for the Tonsina River basin, a tributary to the Copper River, in Alaska. Using limited field data we were able to characterize habitat for the mainstem Tonsina River and three sub-basins for input into the model, and then predict salmon productivity over a relatively large area, and specific to each sub-basin. These data will be used to assess current and future conditions, and to target future monitoring and restoration.